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Submitted for the degree of Ph.D. in the University of London’s School of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1994.


This thesis uses the record of benefaction in Europe
to the Military Orders of the Hospital and the Temple to measure
regional crusading support and to provide a description of the
contribution of countries outside the crusading heartland, in
particular the Empire, Poland, the Czech lands and Hungary, to
Europe’s crusading enterprise between 1145 and 1291.
Through critical interpretation of published sources
and secondary literature, making use of more than 400 original
documents, among them several from the Hospitallers’ Prague
archive which remain unpublished, it examines in detail, for the
first time as a whole, the endowment of both orders and the
establishment of their houses on the territory of the Piast
rulers of Poland and in the two Slav principalities of Pomerania.
At the same time it assesses the development of the
Military Orders’ estates in terms of the relative importance of
initial endowment, subsequent acquisition, plantation of new
properties and alteration in the terms of ownership; in so doing,
it aims to contribute to the correction of a long-standing but
erroneous model for the economic development of 13th and 14th
century Poland.

Through an examination of local conditions it
postulates a model for the creation of Hospitaller and Templar
houses and the evolution of provincial hierarchies. It examines
available information for the internal administration of both
orders, the activity of their officials, and the number, nationality
and regional connections of their membership. It provides new
information on the evolution of independent prioral offices in
the Hospital’s two provinces of Bohemia and of Eastern Germany
from 1291.
The local involvement of both orders is set in
context and closely defined for the regions under consideration.
The penetration of Eastern European society by crusading ideology
is examined as a necessary background to reassessment of the
early activity of ‘national’ military orders and the Teutonic
Knights in the Baltic theatre.